By Ehsaan Yousf 

Relations Between east and West were never cordial.The continuous ongoing war conflicts directly between the two world blocs of United Nations and Soviet union was a headache for the world peace. These two blocs were in a constant competition of political and military power. This state of affairs was known as Cold war.

Europe remained threat to the world affairs upto second world war. And European countrie maintained peace by forming different alliances to prevent the dominancy of France, Great britian and Germany.The system which prevailed was known as the balance of power. The Germany,Japan and Italy were defeated in the second world war by the comprising alliances of Great britian, Soviet Russia and the United States of America. We all know that at the end of the war the United States dropped nuclear bombs on Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki brutally which demaged the whole generation there. By this act there was a dominant push of United States over others as far as it’s military and economic stability is considered and it was felt that the world needs the leadership of United States for its long run stability and development. Now Britain, France and European countries beacme dependent on united states for its economic development and recovery.But here Soviet Russia claimed equal say on European problems. And soon these saying and coming into eachothers way became a leading factor for the cold war.

These two countries produced difference about working for the problems and development of Europe. The two main factors which played a role was political as well as ideological differences between two. The United States was in favour of democracy and free market type of governance. But on the other hand Soviet union Highlighted the merits of governance by single (communist) party and of state controlled economy. These political and ideological differences led the feelings of security dilemma among eachother. And it started the bipolar phase of world politics.The European politics was revolving around these two blocs and the western countries who joined the United States called themselves “FREE WORLD “ And the Eastern countries became part of socialist camp headed by Soviet union. These two leading countries of rival camps were clubbed under the exclusive new category of Super powers.

The two blocs started making up organisations in against of other.NATO ( North Atlantic treaty organization) was formed in 1949 with the United States and Canada and 10 other countries in western Europe. NATO members formed themselves as an alliance to treat aggression against any one of them as aggression on all of them and fight the aggressor together. The Soviet union the cleverly offered to join the alliance, But NATO turned down the offer because NATO’s real purpose was to stop the spread of the Soviet influence and ideology. The Soviet union set up in 1955 itsbown military grouping called the Warsaw treaty organization with its allies in eastern Europe to counter NATO.

During the bipolar phase of world politics many countries got the momentum of liberty and marched and protested against the colonial rule and got freedom . These two blocs were in support of goodwill of the native people which boosted the people of colonial rule. Beginning in 1960 almost 100 countries were born but these countries didn’t want to compromise on their long run freedom by joining the hands of these two world blocs and they launched the NON ALIGNED MOVEMENT which advocated World peace, nuclear disarmament and economic development in which India Played a leadership role.

By 1970’s Significantly the bipolar world started yielding place to multipolarity . The scholars perceived presence of not only these two blocs but many centres of power who influencebin world affairs.Like we can see the western countries under the economic development of United States came up with the integration of regional process called European union. And then countries became the major competitor of United States in world market. In East Asia too the rise of Japan and then china followed by asian tigers loosened the group of the bipolar world order. And finally the bipolar world order continued till the totally unexpected collapse of socialism in East Europe and Soviet union,which spelled formal end to the war era in the beginning of 1990s

Ehsaan Yousf

Kashmir Based Journalist

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